⚡ Battery Factory Directory

U.S. Battery Material Refineries

An up-to-date list of the major refineries for processing battery-grade lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese, and graphite for making batteries for electric vehicles, storage, and solar. These minerals and metals are the most critical (active) materials in making EV batteries.

EV battery material processing in the U.S.

The reshoring and building of a domestic EV lithium battery supply chain is in full swing in the U.S., with a bevy of new lithium, nickel, and cobalt refineries and processing facilities coming online in the next few years. The output of these refineries is to produce high-purity (99.5+%) lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese (for cathode), and graphite (for anode) to produce what are known as battery active materials

The 3 most used battery chemistries are:

NCM/NMC – Lithium-Nickel-Cobalt Manganese Oxide (LiNiCoMnO2)
NCA – Lithium Nickel-Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2)
LFP – Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4)

with EVs using NCM, NCA, and LFP chemistries; storage applications using NCM (on-grid) and LFP (off-grid); and solar applications using LFP.

NMC batteries come in different ratios - NMC 622/811/955. NMC 811 for example means a ratio of N to M to C of 80% nickel, 10% manganese, and 10% cobalt. Overall, such a battery contains 11% lithium, with 89% consisting of the NMC materials in a specific ratio (such as 811).

Battery-grade (BG) active materials

The finished products are called battery-grade active materials or cathode active materials (CAM) and are:

Lithium hydroxide (LiOH)
Nickel sulfate (NiSO4)
Cobalt sulfate (CoSO4)
Manganese sulfate monohydrate (MnSO4)
Purified spherical graphite (PSG)

Cathode active material (CAM) refineries

Refinery Location Product Opening
6K LFP, NMC811 MA 2025
Albemarle Lithium hydroxide NC
Alionyx Energy Redox active polymers CA
American Battery Technology Company Lithium hydroxide NV
Ascend Elements NMC MI
Ascend Elements NMC KY 2023
BASF Elyria Lithium Lithium carbonate OH
BASF Toda America LMO, NMC MI
Controlled Thermal Resources Lithium hydroxide CA
Eagle Lundin Humboldt Mill Nickel MI
ICL-IP America Inc. LFP MO
Ioneer Lithium hydroxide NV
Lanxess-Standard Lithium Lithium carbonate AR
Lanxess-Standard Lithium Lithium carbonate AR
Lithium Americas Lithium carbonate NV
Livent Lithium hydroxide NC
Missouri Cobalt Cobalt MO
Mitra Future Technologies LFP CA
Piedmont Lithium Lithium hydroxide NC
Piedmont Lithium Lithium hydroxide TN 2025
Primet Precision Materials cathode materials NY
Talon Nickel Nickel ND TBA
Tesla Lithium hydroxide TX TBA
The Metals Company Cobalt, nickel sulfate TX

Anode material (graphite) refineries

Refinery Location Product Opening
Advano Silicon LA
Alabama Graphite Natural graphite AL
Alkegen Si-graphite composite IN
Amprius Technologies Silicon nanowire anode CA
Amsted Graphite Natural graphite WV
Anovion Synthetic graphite NY
Anovion Spokane Graphite WA
Applied Materials Lithiated anodes CA
Birla Carbon Synthetic graphite LA
Birla Carbon Synthetic graphite GA
Enevate Si-graphite composite CA
Graphex Spherical graphite Mi 2023
Graphite One Graphite WA TBA
Group14 Technologies Si-graphite composite WA
Li-Metal Graphite NY 2025
Libama advanced metal anode TN
NanoGraf Si-graphene composite IL
Nanotech Energy Graphene CA
Novonix Synthetic graphite TN
Paraclete Energy Silicon MI
SGL Carbon Natural graphite NC
SGL Carbon Natural graphite CA
SGL Carbon Natural graphite PA
SGL Carbon Natural graphite PA
Sila Nanotechnologies Si-graphite composite CA 2025
Superior Graphite Synthetic graphite IL
Superior Graphite Synthetic graphite IL
Syrah Technologies Graphite LA 2023