⚡ Battery Tech: TMS

Battery Thermal Management Systems

Battery thermal management systems (BTMS) are essential for the safe and efficient operation of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems (BESS). These systems regulate the temperature of the battery, ensuring optimal performance and extending the lifespan of the battery. The design and operation of BTMS are critical in preventing thermal runaway and ensuring safe operation. As the demand for electric vehicles and energy storage systems continues to grow, the importance of BTMS will only increase, making it a critical area of research and development in the field of energy storage.

2024 List of U.S.-based manufacturing facilities that provide BTMS systems for the EV and BESS industries:

Manufacturer State
ADA Technologies CO
Calogy Solutions QC
Calsonic Kansei
CapTherm Systems
Hanon System
HotStart Thermal Management WA
KULR Technology CA
Latent Heat Solutions OH
Latent Heat Solutions CO
LG Energy
Morgan Advanced Materials IL
Morgan Advanced Materials GA
Morgan Advanced Materials KS
Morgan Advanced Materials IN
Nanoramic Laboratories MA
Parker LORD IN
Robert Bosch
Samsung SDI
Senior Flexonics IL
Senior Flexonics Coahuila
SGL Carbon CA
SGL Carbon NC
SGL Carbon PA
SGL Carbon PA
VOSS Automotive

Importance of BTMS

Lithium-ion batteries are highly sensitive to temperature changes and can be damaged or even destroyed if exposed to extreme temperatures. This is because the performance and lifespan of the battery are highly dependent on temperature. When the battery is too hot, the electrolyte can break down, causing a reduction in capacity and accelerated aging. When the battery is too cold, the chemical reactions inside the battery slow down, reducing the power output and reducing the overall efficiency of the battery.

BTMS plays a vital role in regulating the temperature of the battery to ensure optimal performance and extend the lifespan of the battery. These systems maintain the temperature of the battery within a safe and efficient operating range, preventing overheating or overcooling.

Design of BTMS

BTMS is designed to provide efficient cooling or heating to the battery cells. The system consists of several components, including a cooling/heating source, a thermal management controller, and a cooling/heating distribution system. The cooling/heating source can be either air or liquid-based, depending on the application. The thermal management controller is responsible for monitoring the temperature of the battery and controlling the cooling or heating source to maintain the desired temperature. The cooling/heating distribution system circulates the coolant or air to the battery cells, providing efficient heat transfer.

Operation of BTMS

BTMS operates in two modes: cooling mode and heating mode. In cooling mode, the BTMS extracts heat from the battery cells and dissipates it to the environment, keeping the temperature of the battery within the desired range. In heating mode, the BTMS heats the battery cells to prevent the temperature from dropping below the optimal range. The thermal management controller switches between cooling and heating modes based on the temperature of the battery cells.

BTMS also plays a critical role in preventing thermal runaway, a phenomenon where the battery temperature rapidly increases, leading to an explosion or fire. The thermal management controller monitors the temperature of the battery and activates the cooling system if the temperature exceeds the safe limit.