Battery Thermal Management Systems
Battery thermal management systems (BTMS) are essential for the safe and efficient operation of lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles (EVs) and energy storage systems (BESS). These systems regulate the temperature of the battery, ensuring optimal performance and extending the lifespan of the battery. The design and operation of BTMS are critical in preventing thermal runaway and ensuring safe operation. As the demand for electric vehicles and energy storage systems continues to grow, the importance of BTMS will only increase, making it a critical area of research and development in the field of energy storage.
2023 list of U.S.-based manufacturing facilities that provide BTMS systems for the EV and BESS industries:
|HotStart Thermal Management||WA|
|Latent Heat Solutions||OH|
|Latent Heat Solutions||CO|
|Morgan Advanced Materials||IL|
|Morgan Advanced Materials||GA|
|Morgan Advanced Materials||KS|
|Morgan Advanced Materials||IN|
Importance of BTMS
Lithium-ion batteries are highly sensitive to temperature changes and can be damaged or even destroyed if exposed to extreme temperatures. This is because the performance and lifespan of the battery are highly dependent on temperature. When the battery is too hot, the electrolyte can break down, causing a reduction in capacity and accelerated aging. When the battery is too cold, the chemical reactions inside the battery slow down, reducing the power output and reducing the overall efficiency of the battery.
BTMS plays a vital role in regulating the temperature of the battery to ensure optimal performance and extend the lifespan of the battery. These systems maintain the temperature of the battery within a safe and efficient operating range, preventing overheating or overcooling.
Design of BTMS
BTMS is designed to provide efficient cooling or heating to the battery cells. The system consists of several components, including a cooling/heating source, a thermal management controller, and a cooling/heating distribution system. The cooling/heating source can be either air or liquid-based, depending on the application. The thermal management controller is responsible for monitoring the temperature of the battery and controlling the cooling or heating source to maintain the desired temperature. The cooling/heating distribution system circulates the coolant or air to the battery cells, providing efficient heat transfer.
Operation of BTMS
BTMS operates in two modes: cooling mode and heating mode. In cooling mode, the BTMS extracts heat from the battery cells and dissipates it to the environment, keeping the temperature of the battery within the desired range. In heating mode, the BTMS heats the battery cells to prevent the temperature from dropping below the optimal range. The thermal management controller switches between cooling and heating modes based on the temperature of the battery cells.
BTMS also plays a critical role in preventing thermal runaway, a phenomenon where the battery temperature rapidly increases, leading to an explosion or fire. The thermal management controller monitors the temperature of the battery and activates the cooling system if the temperature exceeds the safe limit.