EV Job Skill Sets

Electrification of transport aren't just for cars - EV vehicles are being produced with electric powertrains for motorcycles, bikes, trucks, buses, boats, tractors, and loaders to name a few.

There exists a vast shortage of qualified and experienced workers. Couple that with the fact that these technologies are continously advancing, often at an accelerated rate, and you have a situation where workforce skilling, reskilling, upskilling is paramount and neverending. Four-year and even 2-year degree programs at universities and vocational schools can be too long and expensive for many to obtain some of the skills needed. Continuous multi-modal learning is crucial.

The global EV and autonomous vehicle (AV) industry CAGR through 2025 is projected at 40% growth to top $557 billion, with automobile and maritime applications taking the lion's share. Similar to advances in the robotics industries, the electric autonomous vehicle industry uses advanced sensors for data collection and big datasets for environment perception and analysis. Specifically, HD RGB mapping, lidar point clouds, sensor fusion, and AI/ML methods are common across these industries.

Electrical vehicle engineers

Besides the traditional electrical/electronics engineer, electrical vehicles are basically computers on wheels, with complex electrical, computing, and communication systems onboard. All of which have software controls. Knowledge of data science and dataset handling is important also. Today's EV engineer is expected to be skilled in the following:

General/common coding skills

Web frameworks - Django, Flask, Bottle, Tornado, web2py
ORM libraries - QLAlchemy, Django ORM
Data analysis - NumPy, SciPy, Pandas
Test frameworks - UnitTest, Py.test, Nose
Build tools - Pip, Tox

Autonomous system software

SLAM - Kalman Filters
OpenCV - sensor fusion
TensorFlow, Torch/PyTorch
CATIA, Solidworks
CAN, CAN-FD, LIN, FlexRay, Automotive Ethernet, TSN, 5G
Localization - IMU, GPS/GNSS Sensor fusion - RGB, radar, lidar, ultrasonic, odometric
Drive control - PID/MP control, throttle, brake, steering
HD mapping
LiDAR point clouds
Path Planning and Navigation - BFS, A*

Electric vehicle technicians

The day of the simple mechanic is long over, EV technicians must become skilled in building, testing, repairing, and maintaining the following subsystems:

High-voltage (HV) systems
Electric tractiin motors - AC induction motors, DC magnet motors
Motor controllers
DC/AC inverters
DC/DC converters
Battery modules and packs
Charger controllers
Battery management systems (BMS)
Regenerative braking systems
Cooling systems - batteries, motors, cables
CAN/Can-FD/Ethernet bus
Electronic control units (ECU)
ADAS/autonomous systems
Sensor static/dynamic calibration - RGB cameras, LiDAR
ICE conversion
Troubleshooting and repair

EV charging equipment (EVSE) installers

All these electric vehicles will need charging stations, whether in the home, in workplace parking lots, shopping malls, fleet terminals, highway stops, and parks. EVSE installers will need to be skilled in high-voltage and possible PV (solar) equipment as well:

Charging stations:

Level 1: 120 VAC, 15A, 1.5 KW average (home)
Level 2: 208/240 VAC, 30A, 7 KW average (home)
Level 3: 400-600 VDC, 300A, 50 KW average (commercial)
Level 4: 800-1,250 VDC, 150 KW - 3.75 MW (commercial)
Utility interconnects
Demand response integration technologies
National Electrical Code (NEC) standards and requirements
National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 70E and OSHA regulations
National Electrical Installation Standards (NEIS) for EVSE
First responder safety and fire hazard measures
Wireless networking
EVSE troubleshooting and repair

Commercial drone and UAV usage is rapidly increasing, and all need to charged, whether back at home base or remotely. So EVSE applies to the drone industry too.

PV (solar) system installers

Many remote EV charging locations benefit, either directly or supplanted by, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. These are also popular for the home in southern latitude states. PV installers need to be skilled in the following:

PV system sizing for location
PV modules
Storage batteries
Utility interconnects and interties
Maintenance and troubleshooting

Storage battery installers

Many utilities can benefit from the use of lithium-based batteries for grid stabilization and energy storage. This also applies to PV systems, wind turbines, buildings/facilities, and homes.

Lithium batteries
Battery Management Systems
Ventilation and cooling systems
Utility interconnects and interties