EV Traction Motors
Electric vehicles (EVs) are powered by electric traction drive motors, which convert electrical energy from the battery into mechanical energy that drives the wheels. There are several types of electric traction drive motors used in EVs, each with its unique advantages and disadvantages. Additionally, the magnets used in these motors often require rare earth elements, which can be a challenge for sourcing and supply chain management. The major types of traction motors include:
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs)
PMSMs are the most commonly used type of electric traction drive motor in EVs. They are efficient and have a high power-to-weight ratio, making them ideal for use in vehicles. PMSMs use permanent magnets to create a magnetic field, which interacts with the electrical current to produce torque. They are reliable and require little maintenance, but the magnets used in PMSMs often require rare earth elements.
Induction motors are another type of electric traction drive motor used in EVs. They are simple in design and have a low manufacturing cost, making them an attractive option for automakers. Induction motors use a magnetic field created by an AC current to produce torque. They do not use permanent magnets and therefore do not require rare earth elements.
Switched Reluctance Motors
Switched reluctance motors are a less common type of electric traction drive motor used in EVs. They are similar in design to induction motors but use a different type of rotor. Switched reluctance motors do not use permanent magnets and therefore do not require rare earth elements. They are simple in design and have a low manufacturing cost, but they are less efficient than PMSMs or induction motors.
Rare Earth Elements
The magnets used in PMSMs and some other types of electric traction drive motors often require rare earth elements, which can be a challenge for sourcing and supply chain management. The most commonly used rare earth elements in these magnets are neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium.
China is the largest producer of rare earth elements, accounting for over 80% of global production. This concentration of production creates a significant challenge for sourcing and supply chain management, particularly for companies that are reliant on these materials.
To address this challenge, some companies are exploring alternative magnet materials that do not require rare earth elements. Tesla has developed an induction motor for use in its Model 3 and Model Y vehicles that does not require rare earth elements.
2023 list of manufacturers that provide traction motors, motor cores, and magnets for electric vehicles:
EV traction motors made in U.S.
|Lynx Motion Technology||USA|
EV traction motors made worldwide
Traction drive motors manufactured worldwide excluding China.
|Advanced Electric Machines||UK|
|Brighsun New Energy||Austria|
|Conti Temic Microelectronic||Germany|
|EV Motor Systems||Japan|
|Mitsubishi Heavy Industries||Japan|
|New Favor Industry||Taiwan|
|Nidec PSA Emotors||Japan|
|Nidec PSA Emotors||France|
EV motor cores
EV motor magnets
|Sagami Chemical Metal||Japan|
Electric traction drive motors are a critical component of electric vehicles, and there are several types of motors used in these vehicles, each with its unique advantages and disadvantages. PMSMs are the most commonly used type of motor and are efficient and reliable, but often require rare earth elements for their magnets. Induction motors and switched reluctance motors are alternative options that do not require rare earth elements but may be less efficient or have a higher manufacturing cost. The use of rare earth elements in electric vehicle motors presents a significant challenge for sourcing and supply chain management, particularly given the concentration of production in China. Companies are exploring alternative magnet materials to address this challenge and ensure a reliable and sustainable supply of materials for the production of electric vehicles.